Are controlled items exclusively those that could be used to create weapons of mass destruction ?
No, "civil" goods and technologies that are intended for a specific military use are not licenced under the dual-use licensing system, but they may be redirected to the War Material Export Authorisation Scheme (CIEEMG in French). Items that can be used, in certain circumstances, for the repression of civilian populations are also subject to control for the protection of human rights (e.g. helicopters & parts, riot control chemicals).
Edited on 28 June 2022